Indo-European Roots


*ab- 'water, river'

*abh- 'quick, abrupt'

*abhro- 'strong, mighty'

*abel- 'apple'

*ad(u)- 'water current'

Extension: *ad-ro-

*aidh- 'to burn'

*aig'- 'goat' and *ag'- 'goat'

*ak'- 'sharp'

Extension: *ak't- 'promontory, hill'
  • Reconstructed from Greek akte 'abrupt coast' Tocharian A aē- (*ak't-)
  • Suffixed form *ak't-eno- in Antinum (Samnium)
  • Suffixed form *ak't-idio- in Attidium (Umbria)
  • Suffixed form *ak't-io in Antium (Latium)

U-stem *ak'u-

  • Reconstructed from Greek achuros 'chaff', Latin acus 'needle', Low High German achel (from *ak'u-la-) 'spike'
  • Suffixed form *ak'u-ino- in Aquinum (Latium)
  • Suffixed form *ak'u-men-ko- in Acumincum (Pannonia)
  • Suffixed form *ak'(u)-mon- in Acunum (Narbonensis)
  • N-stem *ak'en-

    Extension: *ak'ro-

    Extension: *ok'ri-

    S-stem: *ak'es-

    *akwa- 'water, river'

    *al- 'to grow, nourish'

    Parallel root *ale- 'to grind'
    • Reconstructed from Armenian alauri (*alatrio-) 'mill', Greek aleo 'I grind'
    • Suffixed form *ale-tr-io in Aletrium (Latium), Aletrium (Hirpinia)

    Extension: *alt-

    Extension: *alm-

    *albho- 'white'

    *algh- 'frost, cold'

    *ambhi- 'around, from both sides'

    *ames- 'blackbird, merl'

    *andh- 'to grow, bloom, blossom'

    *ank- 'to bend, bow'

    *ant- 'forward, before'

    *ap- 'water, river'

    *ar(e)g'- 'glittering, white'

    *areq- 'to guard, lock'

    *arkwu- 'something bent'

    *as- 'to burn

    *at(e)r- 'fire'

    *au(e)- 'to flow'

    Extension: *(a)uer- 'water, rain, flow'

    Extension: *(a)ued- 'water'

    *au(e)g- 'to magnify, increase'

    *aues- 'to shine'

    *aus- 'to draw water'

    *bend- 'spike, needle'

    *b(h)eu- 'to swell, puff'

    Extension: *beus- 'sac, bag'
    • Reconstructed from Middle Irish buas (*bous-to-) 'sac, bag, belly', Old Norse puss 'bag, sac'
    • Suffixed A-grade form *beus- in Pausulae (Picenum) Bausta (Apulia)
    • Suffixed zero-grade form *b(h)us-ro- in Bustricius fl. (Pannonia)

    *bhago- 'beech'

    *bhedh- 'to pierce, dig'

    *bheid- 'to prick, pierce'

    *bheigw- 'to shine'

    *bhel(e)- 'shining, white'

    Extension: *bheleg- 'to shine'

    Extension: *bhles- 'to shine'

    *bhel- 'to grow, spread, swell'

    • Reconstructed from Sanskrit bhanda- 'vessel', Armenian belun 'fruitful', Greek phallos 'penis', Phrygian ballion 'penis', Old Irish ball 'body part', English bull (*bull-on), Latin flo, -are 'to blow'

    *bhelg'- 'plank, timber'

    *bher- 'to bear, carry'

    *bher- 'to boil, swell, get high'

    *bher- 'to scrape, cut'

    Extension: *bh(e)reu- 'to boil, to be wild'

    Variant: *bhreu-
    • Reconstructed from 'Albanian alber 'spring', Greek phrear (*bhrewar-) 'spring', Middle Irish tipra (*to-ek's-bhreur) 'spring', Gothic brunna 'spring', Russian bruja 'current'

    *bheredh- 'to cut, board'

    *bhereg'- 'to shine, white'

    *bher(e)g'h- 'high, mountain'

    *bherem- 'to stick out, edge, hem'

    *bhers- 'quick'

    *bhes- 'to smear, spread'

    *bheug- 'to clear away'

    *bhlendh- 'pale, reddish'
    • Reconstructed from Sansrit bradhna-h (*bhlendhno-) 'reddish', Gothic blinds 'blind', Lithuanian blandus 'dark', Old Church Slavonic blesti 'to err'

    *bhleu- 'to blow, swell, flow'

    *bhreg'- 'to break'

    *bhog 'running water'

    *bhren- 'horn' ('herdsman' ?)

    *bhres- 'to break'

    *bhudh- 'bottom'

    *da- 'to flow'

    *digh- 'goat'

    *del- 'to split, divide'

    *del- 'long'

    Extension: *dlongho- 'long'

    *dem- 'to build, house'

    *der- 'to run'

    Extension *d(e)reu- 'to run'

    *deru- 'tree'

    *dhabh- 'proper'

    *dheb- 'fat, heavy'

    *dhe(i)- 'to suck'

    *dheig'h- 'to knead clay, to build'

    *dhel- 'curve, hollow'

    *dher- 'to hold, support'

    *dheu- 'to run'

    *dheu-n- 'to reel, dissipate, blow'

    *dheubh- 'smoke, misty'

    *dhuer- 'door'

    *d(e)reu- 'to run'

    *eg'hero- (*ag'hero-) 'lake, inner sea'

    *eg'hi- 'hedgehog'

    *ei- 'to go'

    Extension *ei-n-

    Extension *ei-dh-

    *eik- 'to possess'

    *eis- 'to move rapidly'

    *el- 'red, brown'

    Extension: *al-eno-, *al-is- 'alder'

    Variant: *el- 'water bird'

    *end- 'stone'

    *er- 'to move'

    Extension: *ereu- 'swift, speedy'

    *ereb(h)- 'a kind of dark colour'

    *er(e)dh- 'high, to grow'

    *ered- 'to flow, dampness'

    *eres- 'to flow'

    *eudh- 'udder, fecund'

    *gei- 'to turn, bend'

    Extension: *geis-

    *g'eis- 'gravel'
    • Reconstructed from Middle High German kis 'gravel', Old Prussian sixdo 'sand'

    *gel- 'to curl, round'

    Extension: *glem-

    *gel- 'cold'

    *g'enu- 'knee, joint'

    *ger- 'to gather, put together'

    Reduplication extension: *greg-

    *g'hel- 'to shine, green, gold, blue'

    Form *g'hle-
    • Reconstructed from Irish glan 'clean', Icelandic glan 'shine'
    • Suffixed form *gh'l-no- in Clanis fl. (Latium), Glanum (Narbonensis)

    *g'hem- 'earth'

    *g'her- 'to gripe, grab, enclose'

    Extension: *gherdh- 'to encircle, enclose'

    *g'hers- 'rigid'

    *g'heu- 'to pour'


    *grem- 'damp, to sink'

    *greu- 'to scrape together'
    • Reconstructed from Greek gru 'the dirt under the nails', Norwegian kryl 'hump'

    Extension: *greu-mo-

    *gwabh- 'to sink, submerge, plunge'

    *gwhei- 'bright, shining'

    *g'hei- 'winter, snow'

    Extension: *g'hei-m(n)- 'cold, snow'

    *gwher- 'hot, warm'

    *gweb(h)- 'slimy, toad'

    *gwel- 'to drip, flow, to throw'

    *gwer- 'mountain'

    *gwou- 'cattle'

    *ieu- 'young'

    *k'ad- 'to shine, flaunt, excel'

    *kaito- 'forest'


    *kam-p- 'to bend'

    *kap- 'a piece of land'

    *kaput 'head'

    *kar- 'hard'

    *kars- 'to scratch, rub'

    *k'as- 'gray'

    *kau- 'to hit, cut'

    *k'e(i)- 'to sharpen, whet'

    *k'eigh- 'quick, hasty'

    *kel- 'spotted'
    • Reconstructed from Sanskrit kalanka 'spot', kalka 'mud, smut', Greek kelainos 'black', Middle High german hilwe 'fine fog'

    Variant: *kal- (or *kwal- ?)

    *kel- 'to tower, be high, hill'

    *k'el- 'to conceal'

    *klad- 'to hit, cut down'

    *kenk- 'to bind, girdle'

    *k'er- 'head, horn'

    Extension: *ker(e)n- (or *ker(e)s-n-)

    Extension: *k'eres-

    Extension: *k(e)r(e)u- 'horned'

    *kerk'- 'to wrinkle, become thin'

    *k'ers- 'to run'

    *kert- 'to turn, roll, wind'

    *kes- 'to scratch, itch'

    *k'es- 'to cut'

    *keu- 'to bend'

    Extension: *keub-

    Extension: *keuk-

    k'euero- 'north, north wind'

    *kla- 'to heap up, to put'

    *k'lei- 'to tip, incline, lean'

    *kleu- 'hook'

    *k'leu- 'to hear'
    • Reconstructed from Sanskrit sru-ta 'heard', Armenian lu 'rumour', Greek klutos 'famous', kleWos 'fame', Latin clueo 'to be called', Old Irish cloth 'fame', Old Icelandic hljodh 'to listen', Old Bulgarian slava 'fame'

    *k'leu- 'to rinse, clean'

    *krem- 'onion, garlic' or 'ash-tree'

    *kreu- 'blood, raw flesh, ice, crust'

    *(k)seud- 'to grind in little pieces'

    *k'u- 'sharp, pike'

    *k'uei- 'shining, white'

    *laku- 'water basin'

    *lama- 'swamp, puddle'

    *lat- 'wet, damp, swamp'

    *legh- 'to put down, to lie down'

    *leis- 'furrow, to furrow to pursue, learn'

    *le(n)gwh- 'light'

    *lek- 'to tear'

    *lento- 'ductile, soft'
    • Reconstructed from Sanskrit lata 'liane', Latin lentus 'slow', Gaulish lantana 'climbing plant', Anglo-Saxon lie 'mild', Old Nordic lind 'lime tree', Lithuanian lentas 'still',

    *lep- 'stone'

    *leu- 'dirt'

    *leu- 'stone'

    *leudh- 'to grow up, people, free'

    *leug- 'black, swamp'

    *leuk- 'bright, to shine, to see'

    *lou(e)- 'to wash'

    *mad- 'wet'

    *magh- 'to be able, to help, power'

    *mak'- 'long, slender'

    *mand- 'hurdle, plaited twigs'

    *mat- 'hack, flapper'

    *me- 'in the middle of, by, around, with'

    Extension: *met(a)-

    *medh- 'middle'

    *meg'(h)- 'big'

    *mei- 'to wander, go'
    • Reconstructed from Latin meo, -are 'to go, wander', Polish mijam 'to go, flee'
    Extension: *mein- (?, or independent root ?)

    *mel- 'to appear, come up'

    *(s)mel- 'to grind, hit, fine, ground'

    *men- 'to tower'

    *mend- 'to suck, breast'

    *mer- 'to rub, wipe, to pack, rob'

    Extension *mer-s

    *mergw- 'to shimmer, shine'

    *mereg'- 'edge, border'

    *meregh- 'to soak, drizzle'

    *meu- 'wet, dirt, to wash'

    Extension: *meud- 'frisky'

    Extension: *meus- 'moss, mould'

    Extension: *meut-

    *meuk- 'to slide, slip'

    *mori- 'sea'

    *(e)nebh- 'wet, damp, water, clouds'

    Extension *mebh-ro-

    *naus 'ship'

    *ned- 'to sound, roar', and *neid- 'to flow, stream'

    *nei- 'down'

    *ner- 'vital energy, man'

    *ner- 'to conceal, cover, hiding place, hollow'

    *neuk- 'dark, indistinct'

    *neuos 'new'


    *ous- 'mouth'

    Extension: *oust-
    • Reconstructed from Sanskrit ostha 'lip', Latin ostium 'mouth of a river', Old Church Slavonic usta 'mouth', Lithuanian uosta 'mouth of a river'
    • O-grade form *ost- from whence Ostia (Latium)

    *pak'- 'to strenghten, repair'

    *pei- 'fat, milk'

    *pand- 'crooked'

    *pent- 'to go, walk, way'

    *ped- 'foot'
    • Reconstructed from Sanskrit pad- 'foot', Avestan pad- 'foot', Greek pos 'foot', Latin pes, pedis 'foot', Umbrian pers- 'foot', Gothic fotus 'foot'

    Form *pedo-m 'trace, track, soil'

    *pei- 'fat, milk'

    Extension: *peit-

    Extension: *peid-

    *pel(e)- 'full, to fill, to pour, town'

    *pel- 'wide and flat'

    Extension *pelt- 'plain'
    • Reconstructed from Old High German feld 'field', Old Icelandic fold 'earth, land'
    • Suffixed U-stem *peltu- from whence Peltuinum (Samnium)
    • Suffixed S-stem *pelts-os in Pelso lacus (Pannonia)

    Extension: *plak- 'wide and flat'

    Extension: *pla-t- 'wide, flat'

    *pele- 'swamp'

    *pel(i)-s- 'rocky'

    *per- 'to go over'

    Flexional form: *pr-ai (prei, pri)

    *perk'- 'to tear out, dig out, furrow'

    *perkw-u-s 'oak'

    *per(u)- 'rock (?)'

    *pet- 'to open wide'

    *pleu- 'to run, flow, swim'

    *reg'- 'damp, rain'

    *rei- 'to flow'

    *reu- 'to tear out, dig out, open, acquire'

    *rei- 'to tear, cut'

    Extension: *reip-

    Extension: *reik-
    • Reconstructed from Sanskrit rikhati '(he) scratches', Welsh rhwyg 'break', Middle High German rihe 'line'
    • Suffixed zero-grade I-stem *rik-ti-o- in Rittium (Pannonia)

    *rek'sos 'bear'

    *rem- 'to rest, to support'

    *reudh- 'red'

    *reu- 'to tear out, dig out, open, acquire'

    *reu(e)- 'open, wide'
      Reconstructed from Avestan ravah- 'wide', Latin rus, ruris (from *reuos) 'land', Middle Irish roe 'flat field', Old Icelandic rum 'space, place', Old Church Slavonic ravunu 'flat', Old Prussian arwis 'true, known', Tocharian ru- 'to open'

    Extension: *reus-
    • Reconstructed from Old Icelandic rust 'ruinous wall', Lithuanian rusys 'pit for potatoes', Latvian rusa 'piled debris'.

    Extension: *reub- 'to break'

    *sab- 'to taste, perceive'

    *saip- 'stall, fence'

    *sal- 'salt, salty water'

    *sed- 'to sit'

    *seg'h- 'to hold, possess, overcome, victory'

    *sei- 'to be damp, to drip'

    Extension: *sei-kw- 'to spill, pour, draft'

    Extension: *seil-

    Extension: *sein-

    Extension: *seip 'to pour, rain, sift'

    Extension: *sei-r-
    • No appellatives found
    • Zero-grade I-stem *siri- in Siris fl. (Lucania)

    Extension: *seit-

    *sel- 'dwelling'

    *sel- 'to spring'

    *sem- 'to pour'

    *sengw- 'to fall, sink'

    *sen(o)- 'old'

    *sent- 'to take a direction, go'

    *ser- 'to flow'

    Extension: *ser-m
    • Suffixed zero-grade form *srem-ion in Sirmio (Venetia)
    • Suffixed zero-grade form *srem-i-o in Sirmium (Pannonia)

    *ser- 'to guard, watch over, support'

    *serbh- 'to sip, swallow'

    *serk- 'hedge, to fence'

    *seu- 'juice, liquid'

    *(s)kai- 'shining' bright'

    *(s)kamb- 'to curve, bend'

    *(s)keb(h)- 'to work with a sharp instrument'

    *(s)ked- 'to crush, scatter'

    *skel- 'to cut' (in origin, the silicic cutter ?)

    Variant: *(s)kep-

    *(s)ker- 'to cut'

    Extension *(s)ker-d(h)-

    Extension *sker-p-

    *(s)kerbh- 'to turn, curve'

    Extension: *(s)ker-k-

    *(s)keu- 'to cover, wrap'

    Extension: *(s)k(e)rei- 'to cut, separate'

    *(s)lei- 'to pour, slimy' Extension: *(s)leib- 'slimy' Extension: *(s)leikw-

    Extension: *(s)leit-

    *sne- 'to flow, swim, damp'

    Extension: *sneu-

    Extension *sne-t-
    • Reconstructed from Latin nato, -are 'to swim', Welsh naid 'jump', Armenian nay 'wet', Greek notis 'wetness'
    • Suffixed zero-grade form *neti- from which Natiolum (Apulia)
    • Suffixed zero-grade N-stem *neti-s-on in Natiso fl. (Venetia)

    *(s)pel- 'to split, cut off'

    *sta- 'to stand'

    Extension: *stat-

    Reduplication: *si-sta-

    Extension *stedh-
    • Reconstructed from Old Irish sadud (*stadh-i-tu) 'place', Old Icelandic stodh 'id.'
    • Zero-grade form *stedh-io in Clastidium (Cispadana)

    *steb(h)- 'post, pillar, to support'

    *(s)teg- 'to cover'

    *(s)tei- 'sharp'

    *stel- 'to put, place'

    *(s)ten- 'to groan'

    *(s)ter- 'stiff, solid'

    Extension: *(s)terg- 'strong'

    Extension: *(s)terp-

    *steu- 'massive, wide'

    *st(e)r(e)- 'to widen, scatter'

    *s(u)ebh- 'of its own kind'

    *sueid- 'to shine'

    *suel- 'to drink (?)'

    *suel- 'foot, sole, ground'

    *sueng- 'to bend'

    *suer- 'to cut, pierce'

    *suombh-o-s 'porous, spongy'

    *suor-do- 'black, dark'

    *su-ro- 'salty, bitter, cheese'

    *tekw- 'to run, flow'

    *tel- 'to be still'

    *tel(e)- 'flat, flat ground, board'

    *tem(e)- 'dark'

    *ter- 'to cross, transgress, to stay'

    *tergh- ?

    *ters- 'dry, thirst'

    *teu- 'to swell, crowd, folk, fat, strong, boil, abscess'

    Extension: *teum-

    Extension: *teur-

    Extension: *teuta- 'people, land'

    *tei- 'to melt, dissipate, decay'

    Extension: *tibh-

    Extension *til-

    Extension *tin-

    *tragh- 'to drag, move, run'

    *treb- 'building, dwelling'

    *tres- 'to tremble'

    *uek-, *uak- 'to be bent'

    *ueg'- 'fresh, strong'

    *uei- 'to reach towards'

    *ueib- 'to turn, sway'

    *ueid- 'to see, know'

    *ueik'- 'house, settling'

    *ueis- 'to flow, poison'

    *uel(e)- 'to turn, wind, round'

    *uelk- 'wet, damp'

    Variant: *uelg-
    • Reconstructed from Old High German welc 'damp', Lithuanian vilgau, -yti 'to dampen', Russian vulguku 'damp', vologa 'liquid'
    • O-grade form *uolk- (or *volg-) in Volci (Etruria)

    *uen(e)- 'to strive, wish for, love'

    *uere-na- 'alder, poplar'

    *uerb(h)- 'to turn, bend'

    Extension: *uerd-

    Extension: *uers-

    *uer-t 'to turn, wind'

    *ulekw-os 'wolf'

    *urag'h- 'thorn, spike'